Genetically engineered five-module chimeric antigen receptor (5MCAR) T cells can now be made to destroy T cells responsible for autoimmune diseases.
This process was carried out in a research study where a bio-engineered T cell was targeted at CD4+ T helper cell which is responsible for autoimmune disease; type 1 diabetes in mice. The study suggested that 5MCAR T cell is a novel immunotherapy
T cells are a group of immune cells that form part of the adaptive immune system and respond when activated. The process requires that their receptors match and fit with specific antigens during antigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules present on antigen presenting cells. Killer T cells function specifically to kill pathogens; bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. A five module domain consisting; the T cell receptor which is associated with three signaling modules (CD3γε, δε, and ζζ) and a coreceptor module (either CD8 or CD4).
This new study conducted at the University of Arizona, 5MCAR T was designed and directed at autoimmune T cells that mediate type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the possibility of biomimicry and by creating a killer T cell capable of recognizing another T cell, it was possible to upend the effect of T Cell-mediated immunity.
The findings revealed that 5MCAR T cells completely eliminated the harmful T cells that invaded the tested pancreas. This is revealed that bioengineered T cells were capable of treating diseases like type 1 diabetes
Although, US FDA has only approved two chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies for use in kids with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and adults with advanced lymphomas, the engineering of CAR T cells was solely focused on the receptor and did not taken into account the function of the surrounding signaling modules or coreceptor.
This new approach of biomimicry althrough to the function of a natural T cell, including its complex five-module structure, it would be more possible to accurately target antigens with greater sensitivity in the future essentially creating a type of personalized immunotherapy.
A biomimetic approach to cancer therapy holds promise the procedure works and it can be very effective in a mouse model of Type 1 diabetes, so that is great.