Factors encouraging Resistance
It’s been ages since the discovery of the last antibiotic. Widespread excessive use of antibiotics is forcing bacteria into genetic change. Antibiotic Darwinism has led to countless highly resistant strains of bacteria that has now initiated the pathway to Post-Antibiotic Era.
A good number of factors are associated with development of resistance among organisms.
These factors include:
Profuse, irresponsible use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in daycare centers and Intensive Care Units: Many care givers administer antibiotics to infants in day care centers without clinical diagnosis to ascertain causative agent. Again spillage of these antibiotics results in antibiotic pockets, organisms exposed to these pockets develop resistance as a result.
Inclusion of antibiotics in the formulation of cleaning solutions: The inclusion of antibiotics in the manufacture of cleaning solutions is an abuse that should be discouraged. Microorganisms in the environment pick up small quantities of these antibiotic residues and adapt to their presence.
Administration of antibiotics in animal healthcare systems for purpose of growth promotion: the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry and fisheries as preventive medicine and for yield improvement aids in development of resistance. Farmers should be discouraged from such activities.
Exponential rise in immune compromised patients who require extensive use of antibiotic therapy: Immunocompromised individuals e.g. HIV/AIDS patients people receiving immune suppression medication should not be exposed to long therapy on antibiotics. Varying the composition of drugs used in therapy is a better alternative to curb resistance.
Emigration and Immigration resulting in relocation of bacteria: Globalization encourages antimicrobial resistance as displacement of microbes from one environment to a new one encourages the transfer of resistance genes.
Poverty leading to inadequate usage of antibiotic: High cost of living makes it difficult for less privileged individuals to complete antibiotic therapy. This creates a means for microorganisms that survived to build resistance over time.
Poor clinical laboratory diagnosis before administration of antibiotics: Antibiotics should not be used for trivial reasons; the choice of antibiotics is purely a clinical matter. It is essential to ascertain the type of microorganisms before taking antibiotics this will curb antibiotic resistance.
Curbing antimicrobial resistance is a task for everyone, join us at Microbial Forum 2020, where we discuss the Fate of Healthcare in a Developing World with a focus on Antimicrobial Resistance.